Important Terms Related to Animal Husbandry for different competitive Exams Part-2

Important Terms Related to Animal Husbandry for different competitive Exams

Pasture: Fodder crops grown on the land for grazing animals. Production ration: A portion of the ration given daily is more than maintenance requirement

for purpose of growth, production, and work.

Protein supplements: Feeds that contain 20% or more protein are called protein


Ration: The total amount of feed that an animal is offered during a 24-hour period is called

ration. Roughage: Feeds that contain more than 18% crude fiber are called roughage such as hay,

silage, fodder etc. (JRF) Regurgitate: To cast up undigested feed from the stomach to the mouth as done by ruminants.

Scrub Bull: It is a non-descript type of stray village cattle. Selection: The process of including certain animals in a population for becoming parents of

the next generation.

Service period: The period between parturition to successful conception expressed in days is

known as service period.

Service: This term indicates the process in which mature male covers the female.

Springer: a female bovine showing signs of advanced pregnancy. Standing heat: The animals will stand still when another animal try to mount. This period is

known as standing heat. This lasts 14-16 hours. Steer: castrated male beef/dairy animal.

Silage: Freshly cut green forages cut and offered to the animals. Stud Bull: Bull that is used for breeding purposes.

Sternum: The breastbone.

Tethering: A way of controlling the movement of animals by means of a rope or chain.

Test cross: Mating of a crossbred back to its recessive parent.

Weaning: Separation of the calf from the cow and feeding them artificially. If weaning is practiced 4 days after calving, then further ration must be fed as per the schedule described. Puberty: The stage of the female in which the ovary is fully developed, and the process of

egg formation begins in it. In this stage the female becomes pregnant.

Estrus Cycle: The physical events between two heating periods are called Estrus cycle. During this period, animals provide a safe environment in their body for embryo development by conceiving.

Estrus period: The state in which a female animal is willing to mate with a male. Teaser Bull: is used to identify heating period.

Ovulation: The exit of the mature ovum from the ovary is called oviposition or ovulation. Gestation period: The period from conception to delivery of a female animal is called gestation period.

Sire: The male parent (Father) of the Calf.

Dam: The female parent (Mother) of the Calf.

Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced survival and fertility of offspring of related individuals. Hay: Hay is stored forage that is essentially characterized by having low moisture content

(less than 16%). Silage: Green grass is a good source of vitamin A which is present in the form of Carotene. Green fodder can be preserved as silage stored for long period (up to 6months). Silage is a type of fodder made from green foliage crops which have been preserved by fermentation to

the point of acidification. Silage has 65-70% moisture content.

Ensiling: Process of making silage. In the ensiling process, the absence of oxygen leads to the fermentation of water-soluble carbohydrates to produce organic acids which increase acidity of the material (pH about 4.0).

Flushing: The term describes a temporary but purposeful increase in nutrition/ feed around breeding time. Its objective is to boost ovulation, conception, and embryo implantation rates. Flushing may also increase the proportion of females that exhibit estrus.

Grooming: Grooming refers to the process of cleaning animals so that their coats are free of dust, dirt, manure and sweat.

Scrub bull: A bull which does not have good progeny record non descriptive bull. Weaning: Separation of calf from the mother after parturition is known as weaning.

Silent heat: A sub estrus or silent heat in cattle is defined as the lack of behavioral estrus

symptoms, although the genital organs undergo normal cyclical changes. The incidence of silent heat varies from 10% to 40% between different herds.

Anestrous: It is the period of sexual quiescence (dormancy) between two periods of sexual activity in cyclically breeding mammals.

Prolapsing of uterus: In the cow, the vagina and the uterus are separated by the cervix. Prolapsing of uterus means the uterus slips down into or protrudes out of the vagina.

Endometritis: Endometritis is a mild, chronic infection of the uterus (Produces inflammation or irritation). It is very common, affecting up to 40% of post-calving cows. The uterus contains pus and there may be discharge from the vulva. The cows do not seem sick and will still eat milk and cycle normally.

Colostrum: Colostrum is the first form of mammary gland secretion that is released by the mammary glands after giving birth.

Lacto-genesis: The initiation of lactation, called lacto-genesis while Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands.

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