Important Terms Related to Animal Husbandry for different competitive Exams Part-1

Important Terms Related to Animal Husbandry for different competitive Exams

Abattoir: A slaughterhouse.

Adipose tissue: Fatty tissue of animals

Ad libitum (ad lib): Term used to reflect the availability of a feed on a free-choice basis.

Agalactia: Failure to secrete milk following parturition.

Anorexia: Lack of appetite.

Balanced ration: Ration that contains all the nutrients in the right proportions and quantities is called balanced ration.

Bull Calf: A male calf under one year of age. Bull: It is uncastrated sexually matured male of the species.

Bullock: Castrated male ox..

Bovine – pertaining to cattle/ relating to cattle. Ovine Pertaining to sheep.

Caprine-Caprine is a term relating to goats. Equine- is a term relating to horses, mules, zebras, and asses..

Calf starter: Concentrate feed offered to the young calves after 2 weeks of age. Calf: A young animal of bovine species under one year of age.

Calving the act of parturition in cattle.

Parturition: Act of delivery in animals.

Casting: It is throwing down the animal and securing the limbs for various surgical operations, castration, hoof trimming, shearing etc.

Castration: It is the removal of testicles.

purposes like

Challenge feeding: The practice of feeding higher levels of concentrate to challenge the cow

to reach her maximum milk production.

Concentrates: Feeds that contain less than 18% crude fiber are called concentrates such as

grains, oilcakes, grain by products etc. Cow: It is a female of bovine species that has calved at least once.

Crisscrossing or Rotational crossing: Mating of a hybrid to three established breeds in a

rotational manner (AFO 2021)

Cross breeding: A system of breeding between two established breeds. Culling: Removal of undesirable or unproductive animals from herd

Conception: Conception rate is a measure of a cow’s fertility at service or the successful union of male and female in reproduction process.

Deticking: Removal of the external parasites like ticks, lice, mites present on the body surface of animal.

Deworming: Removal of the internal gastrointestinal parasites from the body.

Dystocia: Abnormal or difficult labour at parturition, causing difficulty in delivering the foetus and placenta.

Disbudding: Removal of the horn buds of the calf by mechanical or chemical methods to arrest growth of horns. Edema: The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body, as in swelling of mammary glands commonly accompanying parturition in many

farm animals.

Energy feeds: Feeds containing less than 20% crude protein are called energy feeds. Fistula: A permanent opening made in the body wall of an animal through which there is communication between the animal’s interior and the external environment. An example is a rumen fistula- a permanent opening created surgically between the interior of the rumen and the outside..

Free martin: When twin calves of different sexes are born, the bull calf is normal whereas the heifer calf is sterile. The sterile heifer calf is called freemartin. Gestation period: The period of pregnancy in animals.

Grading up: Systems of breeding in which pure bulls are used for improvement in non- descript females for several generations. (Detailed description in the lecture of Breeding

system) Heifer calf: A female calf under one year of age.

Heifer: A female individual that has not yet calved.

Inbreeding: A system of breeding between very closely related animals. (JRF)V Inter-calving period: Number of days between two successive calving.

Involution: It is the process where pregnant cow’s uterus (womb) returns to the way it was before pregnancy.

Lactation Curve: The graphical representation of the rate of milk secretion during lactation is called Lactation Curve.

Lactation length: The time interval between the dates of calving to the date of drying the animal expressed in days.

Dry period: The time interval between the date of drying off the cow to the date of next


Maintenance ration: A ration given daily to the animal to maintain in resting nonproduction condition with good health.

Milk vein: A large blood vessel which runs under the centre of the animal’s belly towards the udder.

Monoparous: A term designating animals that usually produce only one offspring at each at each pregnancy. Horses and cattle are monoparous.

Meconium: it is the first faeces, or stool, of the newborn.

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