Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams Part – 5

Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams

Arid: A term applied to land that is dry also means deficient in rainfall.. Compost: Manure derived from decomposed plant remains usually made by fermentation, waste plant material under controlled conditions. Compost usually used in green houses to enrich the soil dungs as surface.

Herbicide: Which kill only those parts of plant with which they come into contact and used mostly to control annual weeds when seedling, they have little residual effect. Crop rotation: A definite succession of crops following one another in a specific order.

Drought resistance: Characteristics of plants which are suitable for cultivation in dry conditions

regardless of the inherent mechanism that provides resistance. Effective rainfall: Precipitation which falls during the growing period of the crop

to meet the Evapotranspiration requirements of crops.

Harvest index: The ratio of grain weight to total plant weight in a cereal crop. Hybrid vigour: Qualities in a hybrid are not present in either parent.

and is available

Autotroph: Organism able to manufacture their own food from inorganic materials. Using energy from outside sources. Most green plants are completely autotroph. Bolting: Formation of elongated stem or seed stalk, it usually takes place during the second season

of the growth in biennial plants.

F1 and F2 generation: Genetic terms for the offspring generations produced by a parental generation of plants or animals. Soiling crops: Crops harvested when green and succulent condition are fed to animals shortly after cutting, it is neither dried nor stored for future feeding.

Organic farming: System of farming which avoids the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides or

herbicides, and concentrates on methods of crop rotation and the use of home growth feed, organic fertilizer. Pasteurization: Process of killing organisms in a product, commonly milk by heating to a controlled temperature.

Pedology: The study of soil.

Planker: Implement used to crush clods on land where a roller can be used consisting of number of fixed over lapping plates, showed with iron bars along the working edges which is pulled over the land.

Seed certification: Refers to the system of maintaining the genetic purity and quality of seed. Seed dressing: The chemical treatment of seeds, particularly cereals, with fungicides and sometime

insecticides to protect them against soil and seed borne disease and pest. Truck gardening: Growing crops like potato onion and cabbage on large scale for distinct market. Trench layering: Asexual reproductive method of plant propagation involving laying down the

whole stem, the new shoots are thus forced to push their way through a layer of soil which prevents

the bark from coloring and favors root formation. Weathering: The process by which soil disintegrates and decomposes, eventually producing soil

particles by exposure to the physical and chemical effects of atmospheric agents. Wilting point: The point at which the water content of a soil reaches such a level that it is firmly

held by soil and unavailable to plant roots, so that the plants wilt permanently and die. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt): Bt is bacteria found naturally in soil and is used in agriculture to control pests. Today, organic farmers and home gardeners spray it on their crops for insect protection. Proteins from Bt are also used in genetically modified (GM) crops, such as cotton and corn.

Biofortification: The process in which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through biological means such as conventional plant breeding. Biofortification differs from conventional fortification in that it aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops. (Source: WHO) Breeding: Plant breeding is the act of bringing together two specific parent plants with desirable

traits to produce a new offspring with those desirable traits. This results in new plant varieties and

hybrids.

Conventional agriculture: Conventional farming systems vary from farm to farm and from country to country. However, they share many characteristics, such as the use of technological advances, pesticides, and fertilizers, and sometimes GMOs, to enhance crop production.

Cover Crops: Crops such as grass (rye, oats, buckwheat) or legumes (field peas, alfalfa, clover) that are planted between growing seasons of the farmers’ primary cash crop to conserve and improve the soil. Benefits may include weed suppression, increasing organic matter, improved nitrogen cycling, moisture conservation and reduced soil erosion. The crops may or may not be harvested for sale.

Genetically Modified Organism (GMO): A GMO is created by taking a beneficial trait, like insect resistance or pesticide tolerance, from one living thing and introducing it into a new plant to help it thrive in its environment. GMOs are also commonly referred to as GM crops or products. GM crops are also referred to as biotechnology or genetically engineered, transgenic, or bioengineered crops.

Hybrid: Hybrid seeds are created by traditionally breeding two different plants to create a third new

plant, known as the hybrid.

Irrigation: Irrigation is a method in which water is supplied manually to plants. In agriculture. Organic agriculture: Organic farming uses production practices that allow the use of natural pesticides and fertilizers, but generally disallows the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. Foods certified organic must meet specific production standards as defined by the country’s recognized organic certifying body.

Precision farming: Precision agriculture is the use of data analysis to help farmers improve crop production practices. Farmers analyze data to help them produce more on every square foot of every field, while using water, nutrients, and fuel more efficiently. The target specific use of inputs for production according to crop requirement on localized basis is known as Precision farming. (NABARD 2021)

Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture is the long-term production of plant or animal products using farming techniques that protect the environment, public health, human communities and animal welfare year after year.

Smother Crop: crop which suppresses weeds growing under it with quick growing ability and

dense foliage (AFO-2021) Tillage: Practice of plowing soil before and after harvests to remove stalks, leaves, and other residue from a field. No-till farming is the absence of tillage where stalks and leaves remain in the field to improve soil by retaining water, preventing erosion, and benefiting soil health.

Transgenic crops: Transgenic crops are synonymous with GMO crops. Transgenic stands for

transfer of genes. Mycorrhiza: It is the symbiotic association between fungus and the roots of higher plants. VAM: Vascular arbuscular Mycorrhiza is the phosphorus absorber in plant roots.

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