Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams Part – 4

Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams

Run off: When water flows out the field by breaking the bunds of the field or flows to the sloppy areas from the high level is called run off.

Sandy soil: the soil which contains 2.00 to 0.2 mm diameter soil particles, it contains 85% sand, and >15%, silt and clay. These soils are poor in plant material. Saturation capacity: This term refers to the amount of water present in the soil when it is

completely saturated with water.

Scarification: Any physical or chemical treatment that makes the seed coat permeable is known as scarification.

Seed certification: Is the process to secure, maintain and make available high-quality seed and propagating materials of superior crop varieties, so grown and distributed as to ensure desirable standards of genetic identity, physical purity, and quality attributes.

Seedling: A young plant that has grown from a seed

Seepage: Losses through the beds and banks of canals and water channels take place mainly by Sett: A piece of seed cane with two – four buds (eyes).

unlined canals.

Shifting agriculture: The forest land is cleared off and the same crop (generally rice) is grown year after year on the same piece of land. For example: Assam, Jharkhand, Kerala, AP, Orissa, MP. It causes soil erosion mostly practiced in northeast region. (JRF 2013) Short day plants: Plants which change from vegetative to reproductive stage and produce flowers

and fruits when the days become shorter. Shrubs: Are bushy plants with medium to tall height and canopy.

Silage crops: Those crops, which are harvested when still green and succulent and are fed directly to animals without curing, are called silage crops. e.g., Berseem, Shaftal, maize.

Stratification: Is the practice of exposing imbibed seeds to cool temperature conditions for a few

days prior to germination to break their dormancy.

Strip crops: These are of following types: (i) Erosion permitting crops: These crops are grown to permit soil erosion in large sloping lands which require land shaping for successful arable farming. Such crops have lower foliage cover and holding capacity of roots to surface soil, and they are sown along the slope in strips e.g., Sorghum, pearl millet, maize etc.

(ii) Erosion restricting or resisting crops: These crops are grown to restrict soil erosion. They are grown across the slope in strips alternately with erosion permitting strip crops to introduce land shaping by cultural means e.g., horse gram, kidney bean, Cowpea, Groundnut, Lobia, grasses. etc.

(iii) Contour Strip crops: These crops plants are grown in strips of suitable width across the slopes

on the level or contour lines alternating with erosion restricting crops particularly where land shaping is not needed i.e., in low gradient grounds e.g., sorghum, pigeon pea, groundnut, marvel grass.

(iv) Field strip crops: the crop plants that are grown on farmlands in more or less parallel strips across fairly uniform slopes but not exact contours e.g., maize, pigeon pea, guar, sorghum, pearl millet, cowpea, sun hemp, mung bean, sesame etc.

(v) Wind strip crops: The tall crop plants such as jowar, bajra, maize, pigeon pea, safflower and mustard that are grown with low crops such as potato, peas, groundnut, mung, urd in alternately arranged straight and long but relatively narrow, parallel strips laid right across the direction of the prevailing wind regardless of the land contours.

vi) Permanent buffer strip crops: These are crop plants such as permanent legume, grass or bush or shrubs that are grown on a permanent or temporary basis on the strips c.g., babool, Subabul,

Cassia, Prosopis, Glyricidia, munj, guinea grass, lemon grass etc. Subsistence farming: In which necessities like food, clothing, and shelter are produced for the

family to live on. Sugar crops: These are the crops, which are grown for sugar purposes. c.g., sugar cane and sugar beet.

Sod or turf crops: These crops plants belong to the grass family and have sod type tillers with matted foliage and roots close to the soil surface to conserve soil from erosion e.g., marvel, digitaria

and doob grasses. Temporary wilting percentage: Soil water content at which plants wilt during the hot windy part

of the day but regain turgidity during the cooler part of the day is called TWP.

Topping: Topping in tobacco is the removal of the terminal bud with or without some of the small top leaves just before or after the appearance of the flower head. Transpiration ratio: It is the ratio of the weight or volume of water transpired by the plant during

its growth period to the weight of dry matter produced by the plant. Transpiration: It is the process of loss of water from living plants. True Allelopathy: When the allelochemical is toxic in their original form is called true

Allelopathy. Variety: In general, the term variety has been used to refer to a group of similar plant within a

particular species that is distinguished by one or more than one character and given the name.

Vernalization and chilling: Many biennials and temperate annuals, as well as certain fruit trees,

require exposure to cold temperature before they can flower. This is known as Vernalization

requirement for annuals and biennials and chilling requirement for fruit trees.

Vines: Are plants, which have tender stems, and require some support for upward growth.

Water holding capacity: Ability of soil to retain water.

Ware Crops: such crops are grown for temporary storing as intact in warehouse for future use or

sale e.g., potato, tomato etc. Water potential: Refers to the chemical potential of water. Weather: It is a state of atmosphere at any time; it is combined effect of many things such as heat,

cold. Weed: any plant growing out of its proper place.

Harvest index: It is the ratio of economic yield to biological yield. It is expressed in percentage in H.I. Economic yield x 100/Biological yield Biological yield: It is the total dry matter produced by the crops after synthesis minus respiration

losses.

Economic yield: That part of the crop for which the crop is grown e.g., stem in sugarcane, root in the case of sugar beet.

Monocropping: Raising of only one crop in a year when there is seasonal supply of water is called Monocropping, monoculture or specialized farming.

Multiple cropping: Raising of two or more crops in the same field or in a year is called diversified multiple cropping or simple multiple cropping. Tilth: It is the final condition of soil when all the tillage operations are carried out.

܀܀܀ Composite variety: A mixture of genotype from general sources maintained by normal pollination. Compounds which act as buffer in soil: Clay organic matter and such compounds as carbonates and phosphates make the soil resist appreciable change in pH value.

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