Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams Part – 3

Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams

Integrated weed management: The concept of IWM involves the planned use of all possible direct and indirect measures rather than relying on a single method to combat weeds. Intercropping: Growing of two or more crops together on the same field, where one crop (main

crop) planted in rows first and then another crop (intercrop) is planted in between the rows. These crops remain in association for a shorter time. These crops may or may not be planted and harvested

at the same time e.g in Sugar cane planting of onion, garlic etc Interception: When the drops of rainfall or precipitation are intercepted by plant leaves it is called interception.

Irrigated soil: The soil, which receives irrigation water from well and tube wells, is known as irrigated or chahi soil. Irrigation efficiency: It is a term used to indicate how efficiently the available water supply is

being used for crop production. Irrigation scheduling: It refers to the number of irrigations for a crop and their timing.

Irrigation water requirement: The quantity of water required for successful crop production is exclusive of precipitation, ground water and other natural resources. Irrigation: Irrigation is the artificial application of water to soil or crop plants to assist crop

production. Kera: Manual sowing of seeds in lines in furrows.

Kharif crops: Those crops, which are planted in the summer month from March to July and harvested in autumn and winter, are called Kharif crops e.g., rice and cotton.

Latitude: The angular distance north or south of earth equator. Line: A cultivar propagated by seed is called a line.

Livestock and poultry farming: This category includes a farming system in which various kinds

of livestock are reared for meat, milk, wool and eggs.

Loamy soil: The soil is more or less than midway clay and sandy soil and ideal loam soil may

defined as a mixture of sand, silt and clay particles which shows the properties of sandy, silt and

clay in equal proportion.

Lodging: The bending or breaking over of a plant before harvesting. Long day plants: Plants which change vegetative to reproductive stage by producing flowers and

fruits when the days become longer. e.g., Carrot, Radish etc. Matric potential: It is produced by capillary and surface forces.

Maximum potential soil moisture deficit: Is the greatest value of potential soil moisture deficit

attained during the growth of a crop.

Monocots: These plants have one cotyledon and parallel leaf venation. Moisture Available Index: Ratio of rainfall weekly/monthly at 50% probability and potential evapotranspiration (RRB SO 2018)

Muck soil: If the quantity of organic matter exceeds 20% but less than 50% is called muck soil. Mulch: Any material or practice which is used to check the loss of water by evaporation is called mulch.

Multiple cropping: It is growing of two or more crops in a year from the same piece of land. Narcotic or drug crops: This category includes those crops which have some narcotic and drug value e.g., poppy, tobacco.

Natural erosion: The erosion of the soil under natural conditions. Natural soil: Strictly speaking a soil having pH of 7, in practice a soil having pH 6.6 and 7.3.

No tillage crop (zero tillage crop): Crop grown without any tillage to prepare seed bed or row.

Nucleus seed: Seeds obtained from selected individual plants of a particular variety which need to be purified and multiplied in such a way as to maintain their genetic purity.

Nut cycle: The regeneration/cycling of nutrients. Nutrients budget: quantitative data of the major nut flowing to retained within the discharge from

the system.

Nutrients: The food for microbial and plant life is mainly composed of nitrogen and phosphorous

but also of potassium, Mg, Fe, Ca,Co,Cu, Zn and other elements. Oil seed crops: These are the crops, which are grown for the purpose of extracting oil from their

seed e.g., mustard and ground nuts. On farm water management: The planned use of irrigation water at the farm level or

more

efficient utilization in agriculture. Osmotic potential: It is also called solute potential. It is produced by various solutes in soil water.

Peat soil: If the quantity of organic matter is more than 50% is called peat soil.

Percolation: Downward movement of water within the soil profile. Plant development: Plant development is the progress of a plant from germination to maturity through a series of stages. Plant growth: It is the increase in the dry weight of a plant over time mainly because of

photosynthesis. Plough pan: A dense, compacted layer about 5 to 7 cm thick formed beneath the surface soil by repeated ploughing in the same path. Plough: Its function is to cut, stir, invert, and pulverize the soil.

Pore space: It is a space between soil particles occupied by air and water; it is largely controlled by the texture of soil.

Potential Evapotranspiration: Is defined as the amount of evaporation occurring from an

extensive area of a short, green growing crop completely covering the ground and well supplied

with water.

→ Potential soil moisture deficit: It is the difference between a crop potential evapotranspiration and

the amount of rainfall received by a crop plus the quantity of water delivered to it in irrigation. Pressure potential: It is produced by actual hydrostatic pressure. Puddling: Ploughing in standing water to create a shallow hard pan at a 5-10 cm depth, which helps

to increase water-holding capacity and reduce moisture losses by percolation.

Pulses or grain legumes: The crops belonging to the Leguminosae family are grown for their edible seed e.g chickpea, Lobia. Readily available water: The portion of the available water that is most easily extracted by a plant is called readily available water.

Regular and trade winds: e.g., monsoon winds

Relay crops: A relay crop is one which is planted as a second crop after the first crop has reached its reproductive stage of growth but before it is ready for harvest. e.g., planting sugar cane in sugar beet.

Restorative crops: Such crops provide a good harvest along with enrichment or restoration or amelioration of soil e.g., legumes.

Riparian crops: Grown along with irrigation or drainage channels or waterbodies e.g., water bind weed (Kalmi sak), para grass. Root and tuber crops: These are vegetable crops grown for their underground parts like roots,

bulbs, rhizomes, corms and stem tubers e.g., carrot and onion.

Rostering/water regulation: The process of distribution of irrigation water.

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