Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams Part – 2

Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams

Crop: A crop is a community of plants grown under field condition for its economic value. Cropping Intensity: The term cropping intensity refers to the ratio of actual cultivated area to total

farm area over a year. Cropping intensity of India: 142%.

Cropping Pattern: It is a general cropping system followed or practiced by the farmers in an

ecological zone. Cropping Scheme: Allocation of an area to different crops being grown on a particular farm in a year.

Cultivator: Which only cut and stirred the soil.

Necrosis: Death of organs of a plant, either as blight or death of tissue in localized areas, usually inside fruit and stems or die back or death of stems or branches.

Delta of Water: The depth of irrigation water required for the full crop period. Duty: Duty is the area of land that can be irrigated with a unit volume of water supplied across the

base period. Base Period: Base Period for a crop refers to the whole period of cultivation from the time when irrigation water is first issued for preparation of the ground for planting the crop, to its last watering before harvesting.

Korwatering: The first watering which is given to a crop, when the crop is a few centimeters high, is called Korwatering.

Palco irrigation: Sometimes, in the initial stages before the crop is sown, the land is very dry. In such a case, the soil is moistened with water, so as to help in sowing of the crops. Irrigation Efficiency: It is defined as the ratio of water output to the water input, i.e., the ratio or percentage of the irrigation water consumed by the crop of an irrigated farm, field or project

to the water delivered from the source. It is in (%).

Crop Water Requirement: The amount of water required to raise a crop to maturity within a given

period of time. Determinate Plants: Those plants which initiate their reproductive stage after completing

vegetative growth, e.g., wheat, barley. Dicots: Dicots have two cotyledons and reticulate leaf venation.

Diversified Farming: This is an expanded type of farming system in which varieties of crops are produced and many types of animals are reared.

Dobari Crops: A crop grown on residual moisture after the harvest of rice.

Dormancy: Seed dormancy is the state of inhibited germination of seeds with viable embryos in condition conducive to plant growth. Drainage: It is the removal of excess surface or ground water from the root zone of a crop by

means of surface or sub-surface drains. Dry farming: In which crops and livestock are raised on land which does not receive sufficient

rainfall for water intensive crops and no irrigation facilities are available fall into this category. Earthing up: The operation of pulling up soil from the center of crop rows to the bottom of the

plants, this helps in uprooting weeds and supporting plants. Economic yield: The economically important part for which a particular crop is grown. Effective rainfall: It is the part of the rainfall which forms a portion of the water requirement of a

crop, or which can be used by crop. Eolian soil: The soil which is formed by the material transported by winds from one place to another is called eolian soil.

Epigeal germination: It is derived from two words epi “above” and geas “earth”. In this type of germination, the cotyledons come out above the soil surface and generally turn green and act as first foliage leaves. e.g.. bean.cotton. Evapotranspiration: It is the total loss of water due to its evaporation from land, plant and water

surfaces and transpiration by vegetation per unit area per unit time. Exhaustive crops: Crops, which feed heavily on the soil and deplete soil nutrients, or we can say such crops leave the field exhaustive after growing e.g., sorghum, tobacco, cereals, sesame, brinjal,

tapioca etc. Extensive farming: In this type of farming large areas are used with minimum expenditure or attention to efficient use of other resources.

Fiber crops: The crops, which are grown for their fiber and are used in making textiles, ropes. e.g.,

jute, sun hemp, cotton.

Field capacity: The amount of water retained by soil after drainage of saturated soil by gravitational force is called field capacity. Field carrying capacity: It is the field capacity. It is also called normal moisture capacity.

Forage crops: Those crops, which are grazed by animals and harvested for green chop, hay, silage is classified as forage crops e.g., maize and sorghum.

Fouling crops: Whose cultural practices allow the infestation of weeds intensively e.g., direct seeded upland rice. Fruit farming: In which orchards are planted and the objectives are to maximize fruit production,

enhance quality and increase income. Garden crops: Vegetable crops, which are grown for their edible leaves, shoots, flowers

seed. e.g cabbage and okra.

, fruit and

Germination: Is the emergence and development from the seed embryo of those essential

structures which, for the kind of seed provided, indicate the ability to produce a normal plant

under favourable conditions.

Grassland farming: These systems are mainly concerned with growing grasses for consumption by

livestock kept for milk or meat production. Gravitational water: Is the water more than hygroscopic and capillary water that percolates through the soil under the action of gravity if favourable conditions for water drainage are provided.

Green manure crops: Some crops are grown and ploughed in the soil in green form in order to

improve soil fertility e.g., Berseem, Guara, Dhaincha etc Hard pan: A hard semi-impervious layer usually developed due to continuous ploughing to a depth of about 15 cm, with cultivators, or with continuous deposition of salts due to soil or surface irrigation water.

Herbaceous: Plants with soft and easily vulnerable body parts. Herbs: Are plants of small to medium height and canopy.

Hydrophyte: Plant which grows in water, or which loves water.

Hygroscopic water: Water attached to soil particles by loose chemical bonds and does not move by the action of gravity or capillary force. Ideotype: An ideal plant type developed through breeding.

Indeterminate plants: In these plants, the vegetative and reproductive stages continue simultaneously e.g., okra, tomato. Soybean is the only crop which has determinate and indeterminate as well as semi-determinate growing types.

Inoculant: The bacteria containing material used to introduce N-fixing Rhizobium bacteria into soil.

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