Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams Part – 1

Important Terms Related to Agriculture for different competitive Exams

Absorption Losses: Loss of water from a canal or a reservoir by capillary action and percolation and in the case of canal during the process of delivery.

Abscission: Detachment of fruit, leaf or other parts from a plant is called abscission.

Acid soil: A soil which is deficient in available bases, particularly Ca and which give an acid

reaction when tested by a standard method. Acre foot water: The amount of water that would cover an area of land to a depth of one foot

assuming no seepage evaporation and run off. Acre inch day: Term used principally in irrigated section of united states for measuring quantity of flow of water. It is equal to a flow which will cover one acre to a depth of one inch in a 24 hours

period or 0.042 cubic feet per second.

→ Acre inch: It is a measure of quantity of flow of water and is equal to the flow which will cover one

acre to a depth of one inch. Acre: (43560 sq. ft) an area of land about 220 feet long and 198 feet wide.

Adiabatic: A condition in which heat is neither gained nor dissipated. Adobe soil: These soils are formed by the broken material of rocks transported by both wind and

water. Agar: A substance made from seed weed and used in solid culture.

Agriculture: It is an art, science and business of raising crops and rearing of animals through exploring the natural resources with the coordination of socio-economic infrastructure to meet the basic necessities of life .i.e. .food, feed, fiber and shelter.

Allelopathy: Phenomenon involving the release of certain chemicals from plant parts into the

environment which may when present in sufficient amounts, inhibit or suppress the germination or

growth of the plants in the neighbourhood.

Alluvial soil: These are the soils which are formed by the deposition of broken material of rocks transported and deposited by water of streams and rivers.

Altitude: Height from sea level

Application losses: Water losses through percolation or run off. Arable farming: The term arable farming refers to a system in which only crops that require

cultivation of the soil are grown. Arboriculture: Intensive cultivation of individual trees possibly for fruits gums and resins.

Arid region: The region where total rain fall is less than natural evapotranspiration rate.

Aridity: It is the characteristic of a region where there is low average rain fall or 100% available

water. It is a permanent feature of the region. Available water: The water retained in a soil which represents the difference between field capacity and the permanent wilting percentage is called available water.

Barani soil: When the source of irrigation to crop is only the rainwater that is known as Barani soil. Base period: Period in days from the first watering of crop before sowing and the last watering before harvesting.

Basic seed: Is the progeny of pre- basic seed produced so as to maintain genetic purity and identity.

Basin: Flat area of land surrounded by low ridges or bunds

Biological yield: It is the total dry matter produced by a plant as a result of photosynthesis and nutrient uptake minus that lost by respiration.

Blind hoeing: Hoeing before a crop germinates.

Botanical variety: When a group of plant occurring in nature is different from the general species originally described and the botanical binomial name is not enough to identify it is called as botanical variety.

Brake crops: These crops are grown to break the continuity of the agroecological situation of the field under multiple cropping systems c.g., growing of pulse, potato, or oilseeds in cereal-based

cropping system. Broadcasting: Manual spreading of seed in the field and mixing of the spread seed by ploughing or planking the field. C3 plants: Plants which fix CO2 in three C molecules and do not use temperature and water as

efficiently as C4 plant. e.g. wheat, rice, cotton.

C4 plant: Plants which fix CO2 in to four C molecules e.g., sugarcane, maize, sorghum. Capillary Water: It is soil water in excess of hygroscopic water. This exists in the pore space of the soil by surface tension or molecular attraction against gravitational forces. It is the only water

available for plant growth and development.

Catchment’s Area: The area which drains the rainwater falling on it, via streams and rivers, eventually to the sea or into a lake. Cereal Crops: A cereal is defined as a crop grown for its edible seed. These crops are also known as grain crops e.g., wheat, Rice, Maize etc.

Certified Seed: It is the progeny of basic seed and is produced by registered growers of seed

producing agencies.

Clayey Soil: A soil is known as clay which contains at least 30% clay particles and in most cases not less than 4%, usually it contains 45% clay, 30% silt and 25% sand.

Cleaning crops: Such crops make the field clean e.g., potato, maize etc.

Climate: Aggregate of atmospheric condition over a long period of time. Clone: A cultivar propagated by vegetative method is called a clone. Colluvial Soil: Are those which are formed from the material transported by the force of gravity.

Command Area: Area who can be economically irrigated by an irrigation system. Commercial Farming System: In this type of farming system, crops are raised on a commercial scale for marketing.

Companion Crops: The two crops grown together are called companion crops. e.g., Berseem and


Condiment Crops: Crops which are grown and consumed as condiments e.g., coriander, mint. Conidia: One celled asexual spore in certain fungi.

Consumptive Use of Water: Evapo-transpiration plus the water assimilated by various plant metabolic processes. As the water consumed in plant metabolism is very small, consumptive use and evapo-transpiration are considered almost equal.

Cover Crops: The crops, which are planted to cover the ground and to reduce soil erosion and nutrients losses by leaching. e.g grasses and rye. Critical Period of Competition: During the crop period there is a certain time when crop plants are

most sensitive to competition by weeds, this time is known as the critical period of competition. Critical Threshold Level (CTL): A weed; insect pest density capable of causing significant

damage to crop is termed as critical threshold level. Crop Rotation: Is the strategy of raising crops from a piece of land in such an order or succession

that the fertility of land suffers minimally, and the farmer’s profits are not reduced. Crop Water Requirement: The amount of water required to raise a crop to maturity within a given period of time.

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